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History>> Mapudungun, Villa Pehuenia, Patagonia, Argentina

 

The distinctive characteristic of mapuche people is that their written language didn't exist, in spite of having been expanded to both sides of the mountain range and of having a great wealth according to the specialists.
So to the being their solely oral language the speakers had a central list in their society. The one that was endowed with the capacity of oratorical had the most sacred gift. Because their language was only oral speakers had a central role in their society. 
But also for this reason it's of primordial necessity its generation in generation transmission in order to avoid its disappearance.
At the present time language has gotten lost enough although it has been possible to maintain more in isolated areas and far in Chubut, Neuquén and Río Negro provinces. Equal is difficult to find somebody monolingual of Mapudungun it's a bilingualism blended with Spanish rural imposed by force.
The importance of this capacity of oratorical is exemplified with this habit: at 16 years children should give an oratorical test in front of cacique to enter in the adulthood. 
Also the word qülmen with which the araucanos name their bosses means "the one that speaks well." To dominate the oratorical one was necessary condition to have leadership and power to be cacique as well as it could be an excluding factor. 
It's newly at the end of the XX century that appears the mapuche like written language. However, the first text written in mapundungun dates of 1606 and it belongs to the P. Luis de Valdivia whose title is "Art and grammar of the language that runs in the whole Reyno of Chile." Which included a vocabulary and a confession box.

Diccionario Mapuche - Villa PehueniaGLOSSARY: English - Mapudungun

Catrileo, M. (1988). Mapudungun: Course of Language Mapuche. Southern University of Chile.

Orthographic Conventions:
The Unified Alphabet is used to pronounce the words in Mapudungun. Almost all the letters are the same ones that in the IPA, with the exception of the following ones: 

d = interdentally fricative (it depends on the context).

ng = to veil nasal.

ll = palatal liquid.

ü = relaxed and high, the vowel behind everything. 

n· = interdentally n. 

t = interdentally t. 

d = interdentally d. 

l· = interdentally l.
 

A  ¦  C  ¦  D  ¦  E  ¦  F  ¦  I  ¦  K  ¦  L  ¦    ¦  LL  ¦  M  ¦  N  ¦    ¦  NG  ¦  Ñ  ¦  P  ¦  R  ¦  S  ¦  T  ¦  U  ¦  Ü  ¦  W  ¦  Y

 

 

Ir ArribaA

adkintun

to look

afumün
to cook
akun 
to arrive 
aling 
fever
alu 
verbal morpheme: it indicates less decisive future that the simple future.
allkütun 
to listen 
am 
1. interrogation word
2.used in a construction with possessive indicate purpose and instrument
amun 
to go
amukonü

to leave for the water(in cases of flood)
amutun 
to leave
an·tü

day
anümka 
plant 
anün 
to sit down
araw 
plow
auto 
car
awkantun 
to play
ayen 
to give, to cause laugh 
ayiwün 
to be happy
ayekan 
to always laugh, to laugh however
ayekan wentru 
scoundrel man (comic, embarrassed) 
ayekantufe 
person that plays several instruments
ayekantulün 
have a good time to some
ayekantun 
to have a good time happily with conversations, dances, music
ayekantun düngu 
amusement 
ayiwkiawün 
to walk happy 
aylla 
nine

Ir ArribaC

chafon, chafo 
to cough, couhg 
challwa(n) 
to fish, fish 
chamall 
woman´s dress 
changkiñ

 island
chaw 
fahter
chadi 
salt 
che 
people
chew 
Where
¿chewpüle? 
In what place? 
chey 
perhaps 
chi 
1.morfema verbal: it modifies to a following noun
2. first person's desiderative
chichatun 
to drink chicha 
chifu 
Male goat
chiway 
sea foam 
¿chumalu am? 
For what reason? ¿to what? 
¿chumi am? 
What did she/he make?, What happened to her/him? 
¿chumwechi am? 
How? 
¿chumwelu am? 
Why? 
chumüñ

 interrogative: "when" 

 

 

Ir ArribaD

defe 
debt 
defelen 
duty
dew 
an action that has started fully
dewman 
1.to make
2.indicates an action that is beginning newly, already 
deya 
sister of a male 
dingen 
to reach
domo 
woman
domo lamngen 
sister of a female 
doy 
goes next to the verb in the comparative sentences
doy pürü

quicker 
dungun 
to speack

 

Ir ArribaE

eiñ mew 
relation fellow-object: 3a a 1a pl. 
el 
1. verbal morpheme: it forms "lel" alternative or "l": beneficial marker
2. verbal morpheme: past termination that requires the possessive one in the indirect speech
3. verbal morpheme: it forms "lu alternative"
elkünun 
to leave, to keep 
eluwün 
to get ready
elü

to leave 
em 
1. used with "ugh" it indicates besides past, certain feeling of emotion and lamentation.
2. it is used to refer to the deads.
en 
relation fellow-object: 2a sing a 1a sing. 
enew 
relation fellow-object: 3a a 1a sing. 
engu,ün 
indicates company: singular and dual, plural 
entrin 
hunger, starvation 
eñumalko 
to heat water 
epe 
almost
epe afichi pun·

 to the dawn 
epe kom 
almost everything 
epu 
two
epu tripa che 
people of two types 
etew 
relation fellow-object: 3a a otras personas. 
eymu mew 
relation fellow-object: 3a a 2a dual 
eymün mew 
relation fellow-object: 3a a 2a plural 
eyu 
verbal morpheme: relation fellow-object: 1a sing. a 2a sing. 
eyu mew 
relation fellow-object: 3a a 1a dual 
 

 

Ir ArribaF

f 
verbal morpheme: relation fellow-object: "x a 3a sing" 
fachian·tü

today 
fali 
to be worth
faluw 
verbal morpheme: indicator of fake appearance alternative forms: "ufaluw" 
fardo 
bale
faw 
here
feley 
well, it is well, you are welcome. 
feman 
I will make it 
femün 
verbal morpheme: indicates speed of the action 
fenden 
to sell 
fentren 
a lot, enough 
fewla 
now
fey 
this, this, this, that, that, that; him, her, it, him
feyürke mai 
Ah, is this way 
feychi 
this, the statement, the one 
feykülen 
to be enough, enough 
feykan 
to be enough
feypin 
to say
feymew 
there, there, for that reason, for that reason
fiel 
morpheme of verbs with possessive
fig 
white 
fillepüle witran 
visits of all parts 
fill kolor 
in all colors 
foro 
tooth, bone 
fote reke 
as a ship 
fotra 
mud
fotüm 
a male’s son fu 
verbal morpheme:
1. conditional past,
2. to express a desire, generally accompanied by "chey" or "fel."
furi 
back
füta 
big
füta kuyfi 
(I greet of hand) so much time (that don't see each other)
füta wentru 
old man
 

 

Ir ArribaI


to eat
illkun 
to get angry
illkülen 
to be angry 
ilokawellün 
to kill a horse 
ina 
1. preposition: "near"
2. to continue
inan lamngen 
bigger brother 
inan 
minor
inawentu 
to imitate
iratu 
to cut firewood 
iyael 
food
iyael kütu 
even food 
 

 

Ir ArribaK

ka 
1. and, also, another time
2.before of “week", "küyen" o "tripantu" specify last time or future according to the time in the verbal way.
3. verbal morpheme: it implies certain sudden security or of short duration of a fact or action.
kafu 
verbal morpheme: it implies security and the speaker's compassion, but it indicates the speaker's doubt.
ka fey 
also, then, that, that, that also 
¿ka iney am? 
And to who more?

kakewme 
different 
kachilla 
wheat
kachu 
grass
ka semana 
the next week 
kakewme 
different 
kam 

kamapu 
preposition: "far from" 
kansatun 
to rest
kakon 
drawer
kawell 
horse
kay 
interrogation word 
kayu 
six
ke 
1.morpheme of verb
2.morpheme of adjective: pluralized
kechu 
five
kelüñün 
to timt 
kelülwe 
coloring
kellun 
to help
ketran 
to plow
kil 
verbal morpheme: it indicates negation in the imperative forms and desiderative.
kimeltu 
to teach 
kimelü

to give to know 
kimngeay 
it will be known 
kiñe 
one 
kiñeke 
some
kiñekemew 
sometimes 
kiñe rupachi 
once 
kisu 
alone
kofke(n) 
bread, to make bread 
kolekio 
school
kom 
all
komütun 
to look (for funny) 
konün 
to enter
koral 
corral 
krasia may 
thank you
kulliñ animal

animals 
kulliñuwün 
to become animal
kulpan 
to fall in misfortune
kultrafün 
to sound strong as the gallop, or when it is hit with the hand in the table or to the horse with the belt
kultrungtun 
to play the kultrun 
kuñiwngen 
to be dangerous 
kuse 
old, old woman 
kuyfi 
a while ago behind 
kuy-kuy 
bridge
küchatun 
to wash clothes 
küdaw 
to work
küla 
three
külchafülün 
to wet a lot some, - külen to be very wet, to distill (the clothes); to be very reduced of flanks. külchafün 
to be wet a lot, to be soaked of water 
küle 
verb morpheme: to "be", it indicates continuation 
kültrafün 

külchafün 
küme 
good
küme dungu 
good news en español esta mal 
küme femnien 
to have under good conditions 
küna 
straw
küpal 
to bring
küpan 
to come
küpatun 
to return, to be come 
küra trafla 
blackboard 
kürüf 
wind
kürüfngen 
windy 
kürüftuku 
strong wind 
küse domo 
old woman
kütran 
sick person 
kütranün 
to get sick
kütrankülen 
to be sick 
küyen

month
  

 

Ir ArribaL

l 
verbal morpheme: benefit marker
lama 
carpet
lamngen 
brother, sister 
larün 
to collapse (a construction)
lel 
verbal morpheme: benefit marker 
lelfün 
field
lelu 
1. it forms "lu alternative"
2. verbal morpheme: backgrounder that indicates the continuity of a fact while something happens in that interval of time.
Example: Amul·etul·ü ruka mew inche = while I left to the house.. 
leye 
to read
lipang 
arm
longko 
head, boss 
lu 
verbal morpheme: 1. it introduces a conditional sentence,
2. used as connector in sentences that indicate progression in the past or present, it forms alternative: lelu
lüykün 
to drip, to distill
 L·l·a 
1.mofema of verb: it indicates negation
2.dead
l·angümün 
to kill
l·awen· 

remedy
l·eufü

river
l·of 
place
 

Ir Arriba

l·a
1.mofema of verb: it indicates negation
2.die
l·angümün
kill
l·awen·
remedy
l·eufü
river
l·of
place

 

 

Ir ArribaLL

lladküle 
to be angry, sad 
llapüd 
snow
ll/lle 
verbal morpheme: it indicates will and certain determination on behalf of the speaker. 
llike 
thigh, leg 
llitulün 
to begin, to begin something 
llodko 
to soak 
llüfken 
lightning
 

  

Ir ArribaM

malal 
corral, porter 
malle 
uncle of the part of father 
mangin 
v. to overflow, to ascend (the waters), n. flood 
mangiñkonün 
to be isolated for flood 
mansun 
ox
mapu 
earth, floor
mari 
ten
matetun 
to drink mate 
mawida 
forest, mountain 
mawün

rain
mawin·ü 

to rain 
may 
yes, then 
me 
verb morpheme: there, implying return 
meke 
verb morpheme: there, implying return 
meli 
four
meli wen·tu mew 
after four days
metawe 
pitcher
mew 
preposition, "in" 
mongelechi che 
the people that is alive 
mongetun 
revive 
mu 
1. relacionator fellow-object: 2a at 1a
2. verbal morpheme: dual desiderativo of 2a 
muiñ

relacionator fellow-object: 2a to 3a pl. 
mudayün 
to make muday 
mücha ula 
in a while more
müle 
to be, to have 
mün 
verbal morpheme: desiderativo of 2a plural 
müñetun 
to take a bath
müten 
only 
mütrümün 
to call
 

 

Ir ArribaN

nagan·tü

late
nengümün 
1. to move something (materially)
2. to use, to exercise a power
nien 
to have
nu 
verb morpheme: negative for conditional and future with "alu"
nutramka 
to converse

 

 

Ir Arriba

N·n·amuntu 
to I tweeted 
n·ayn·ay 
spider

 

 

Ir ArribaNG

ngilla 
to buy
ngillaka 
to make purchases
ngan· 

sowing
ngan·ü 

to sow
nge 
1.morpheme of noun or adjective: estative
2.eye
ngen Ngillatun 
people in charge of the Ngillatun 
ngen·ke fote 
the owners of the ship 
ngepan 
to come, to visit 
ngillan 
to buy 
ngillakan 
to make purchases 
Ngillantun 
A ceremony
ngillantuwe 
place of ceremony of Ngillantun 
ngüneduamün 
to watch over
ngütantu 
the bed, the board
nguyün 
to forget

 

Ir ArribaÑ

ñamikuaw 
to walk lost 
ñamkonün 
to get lost in the depth of the waters 
ñamün 
to get lost
ñma 
verbalization, to "add" or to "put" in a meal.
Ej: poñüñ ma = to add potatoes, aroñma = to add rice. 
ñükun 
impers. to have calms down complete
ñuke 
mother 
ñukentu 
aunt on the part of mother 
  

 

Ir ArribaP

pa 
verb morpheme: here 
palorlkiaw 
to be producing noise 
palorkiaw 
andar produciendo ruido 
palu 
aunt on the part of mother
pañillwe 
irons
pasia 
to go for a walk
kiñe pataka 
a hundred
pe 
1. to see, to visit
2. verbal morpheme: first plural person's desiderative.
peafu 
verbal morpheme: progression in the past or future of a possibility or doubtful hope. 
pefu 
verbal morpheme: possibility and doubtful hope
peñi 
brother of a male 
pel·

throat, neck
pelom 
light
pepikawün 
to get ready 
penge 
to sight 
pewman 
to dream
peyüm 
verbal morpheme: it indicates place or instrument.
pin 
to say, to want 
pichi 
boy
pichiche 
guagua, baby
pichike 
plural of the adj. "pichi" 
pichi mapulen 
to be near (a place) 
pichin 
a little
pichiñma 
for short time 
pichin mew 
at the little time
pidkun 
to cut beans or other cereals 
pital 
hospital 
pire 
hail
poforo 
match
pofre 
poor 
pu 
1.verb morpheme: there
2.nouns morpheme to indicate plurality for human beings. (It follows the determinant)en esp mal
3.preposition: "in", "inside."
4.determinant: pu Catrilaf = the Catrilaf
puda 
verbal morpheme: it indicates regret or frustration feeling in the face of a purpose,
put or action whose results are not positive.. 
pukem 
winter
puliwen 
in the morning 
pun·

night
putun 
to take, to drink 
puñeñ

woman´s children 
pura 
eight 
putun 
to drink wine 
pülle 
preposition: it fences, smaller proximity that "ina"
pütra 
stomach
püramün 
to ascend, to harvest 
pürüm 
quick, then
pontro 
blanket
 

 

Ir ArribaR

rakiduam 
the mind; the thought, the intention, opinion, intelligence 
rakiduamün 
to think, to ratiocinate; pernsar in something (. . .mew)
to have some person for some end
rakin 
to count, to calculate 
ramtun 
to ask 
rangian·tü

to half-day
rangi pun· 

at midnight 
re antü

in the daylight
regle 
seven
reke 
1. as, similar
2. verb modicative or noun: comparison
relmu 
rainbow 
riku 
rich
rke 
verbal morpheme: occurrence indicator, surprise and continuity. 
ruka 
house
rume 
1. too much
2. perhaps
3. a lot, enough 
rupan 
to happen
rupan antü

in the afternoon; after noon 
rupatun 
to apeen again 
rüpü

road
 

 

Ir ArribaS

sañue 
pig
se 
verbal morpheme: it implies certain I dislike in front of a fact that repeats
sera pañu 
silk handkerchief 

single 
zinc 
 

 

Ir ArribaT

tarde 
late 
ti 
determinant: "the” 
tüfachi 
determinant: "this" 
tiechi 
determinant: "this” 
trafla 
chart
tralkatun 
to dynamite 
trariwe 
belt 
tremün 
to grow
tremümün 
to make grow, to raise 
trewa 
dog
tripantu 
year
tromü

cloud
tronglin 
to lose weight 
trufür 
powder
trukur 
fog
tu 
1. morpheme to verbalize adjectives
2. verbal morpheme: it indicates return of an action or fact
tunte 
interrogative word: "how much" 
tüng 
gentle
tranün 
to fall 
tripakon 
flood 
tüfamew 
here

 

Ir ArribaU

ufaluw 
alternative form of "faluw" 
ufisa 
sheep
ul 
to give, to sell 
ula 
delimiter of time, “until” 
ule 
tomorrow
ulelü 

to punish 
umawtu 
to sleep
unen lamngen 
bigger borther 
upül/ üpül 
border 
upül-külen, -tulen 
to be to banks
upültripalen 
to live outside of a place, but not very retired 
urpa 
verbal morpheme: it indicates an action carried out in a point determined in address toward the speaker.
utu 
go to visit 
uw-iñ 

relation fellow-object: 1a a 2a 
 

 

Ir ArribaÜ

ülkantun 
to sing
üLmen 

rich 
ükülla 
the woman´s Mapuche shawl 
üngümün 
to wait
ürpu 
verbal morpheme: it indicates an idea, action or fact carried out in an intermediate point when the person is going toward a certain place. 
ürke 
refers to a last fact with certain admiration or surprise.
üw-iñ

alternative form of "uw-iñ" 
üyew 
there

 

 

Ir ArribaW

waka 
cow 
walüng 
summer, harvest 
walwalün 
murmur, the currents of water, the cascades, the whirls, to sound the trips. 
walwaltun,
walwaltupelün 

to make garglings 
wangülen 
star
wanku 
chair, site
waria 
town
weche 
young 
weda 
bad
wedalkale 
to be bad of health or economic situation
we 
1. morpheme that comes after a number to express time in the future: epuwe = the day after tomorrow, külawe = in three days more, etc.
2. verbal morpheme: temporary indicator that indicates occurrence and permanency of a fact up to now" "from a time.
wefrumen 
to appear suddenly 
weke 
uncle on the part of mother

weku 
uncle on the part of father

welu 
but 
welu l·ayay 
for that reason he/she will die, in exchange for that he/she will die
wente, wenche 
pref. of nouns, the back, the surface, the superior or external part of the things; on, up of, above
wentru 
man 
wentru lamngen 
brother of a woman 
wenu 
sky
wen·üy 
friend 
werkün 
to send to somebody to fulfill a responsibility
wilüfkülen 
to be glistening, brilliant 
willitu 
to the south 
winkul 
hill
wiñon 
to return 
wiñokontu 
enter again 
wiñotu 
to return 
wirarun 
to scream 
witran 
to get up
witralen 
to be standing 
wulungiñ

threshold of the house
wüdan 
to separate, to leave, to be divided 
wütrenge 
to be cold 

 

 

Ir ArribaY

yall 
man´s children 
yafü

strong
yafüamun 
to wlak strong
yafüduamün 
to be energetic 
yafüfünün 
to season 

yafüngelen 
to be strong 
yafükünun 
to harden, to put hard
yafülduamün 
to console
yafülün, yafültükun 
to encourage
yafüluukülen 
to be strong, as a planted post, a nail 
yafüluwün 
to cheer up
yafün 
to be hard, strong, resistant 
yafüpelngen 
to be obstinate, tenacious, of hard cervix 
yafüpiuke ngen 
to be valiant
yafüptuduamün 
to be brave 
yafütuduamtun 
to removed one the discouragement. 
yaw 
verbal morpheme: it indicates the fact of being making something in the surroundings. 
ye 
1. to take
2. verbal morpheme: pluralized that agrees with the fellow and the direct object. 
yefaltun 
to take charge
yeküme 
verbal morpheme: it indicates an action being developed to short intervals in address toward some place. 
yeküpa 
verbal morpheme: it indicates an action being developed to short intervals in address toward the speaker
yelmen 
go to look for for somebody
yem 
form "em" alternative to refer to the deads
yu 
verbal morpheme: dual desiderative of 1a 
yüm 
verbal morpheme: connector of sentences, and in certain cases it is a conditional delimiter, cuasal, storm or of place.

 
 

Villa Pehuenia: Villa Pehuenia Travel Guide, Patagonia, Argentina: Mapudungun.

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